Skrevet av Emne: Henrik Svensmark  (Lest 16281 ganger)

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Sv: Henrik Svensmark
« Svar #60 på: juli 09, 2013, 11:30:24 am »
translator, jeg har ikke lest boka til Calder/Svensmark, men skulle gjerne gjort det. Den står på ønskelista. Jeg kom over problematikken rundt phytoplankton/dimethyl sulfide/UV i en kommentar fra Robert Ellison for noen år siden. Var sannsynligvis den gangen han fortsatt kommenterte litt på WUWT. Det kan jo hende at Ellison har lest Calder/Svensmark, men fenomenet har vært kjent ganske lenge.

I det første innlegget i Det store klimaskiftet i '76 skrev jeg litt om dette:

Sitat
Finnes flere naturlige påvirkninger sett i sammenheng med PDO/ENSO?

I forbindelse med skiftet mellom positiv/varm fase av PDO/ENSO til den kalde/negative fasen, kommer enorme mengder kaldt og næringsrikt vann opp mot overflaten. Dette fører blant annet til en stor oppblomstring av planteplankton, med dertil hørende produksjon av dimethyl sulfid. Les mer om denne illeluktende gassen (for eksempel kloakklukt fra fjæra) på Wikipedia og:

UGA scientists find missing links in biology of cloud formation over oceans

Scientists have known for two decades that sulfur compounds that are produced by bacterioplankton as they consume decaying algae in the ocean cycle through two paths. In one, a sulfur compound dimethylsulfide, or DMS, goes into the atmosphere, where it leads to water droplet formation, the basis of clouds that cool the Earth. In the other, a sulfur compound goes into the oceans food web, where it is eaten and returned to seawater.



Bildetekst: A simplified graphic shows the process by which bacterioplankton send sulfur found in decaying algae into the food web or into the atmosphere, where it leads to water droplet formation?the basis of clouds that cool the Earth. Graphic by Chris Reisch, University of Georgia

NASA var tidlig ute med forskning på dette, og her er noe annet jeg har skrevet her på forumet tidligere:

Dimethylsulfide Emission: Climate Control by Marine Algae?

Ever notice the salty sea smell when you're out on or near the ocean? It's the salt spray tossed from wind-driven white caps and breaking waves, but the smell isn't from the salt alone. Gases diffuse across the air-sea interface, many of which are synthesized and emitted by microalgae. One of these gases is a sulfur based compound that has a strong characteristic odor. It has been suggested that variations in algal production of these natural gases play an important role in moderating our climate through their aerosols' effect on backscattering solar radiation and in cloud formation.

A key process in the sulfur cycle is the transfer of volatile sulfur compounds from the sea to the land via the atmosphere. DMS is the dominant biogenic sulfur compound in the marine atmosphere and essential to the global sulfur cycle. The gaseous DMS is photo-oxidized to sulfated aerosols in the atmosphere. Berresheim et al. established a relationship between DMS, sulfate aerosols, and cloud condensation nuclei. Because the sulfate aerosols function as cloud condensation nuclei, DMS has a significant impact on the Earth's climate. Plankton production of DMS and its escape to the atmosphere is believed to be one of the mechanisms by which the biota can regulate the climate.


Discovery Guides - med litteraturhenvisninger

Du kan også lese litt mer om dette på NASA sine sider:

When Sun's Too Strong, Plankton Make Clouds
07.02.04
 
People say size doesn't matter, and that may be true for tiny plankton, those free-floating ocean plants that make up the bottom of the marine food-chain. Little plankton may be able to change the weather, and longer term climate, in ways that serve them better.

It's almost hard to believe, but new NASA-funded research confirms an old theory that plankton can indirectly create clouds that block some of the Sun's harmful rays. The study was conducted by Dierdre Toole of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and David Siegel of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB).

The study finds that in summer when the Sun beats down on the top layer of ocean where plankton live, harmful rays in the form of ultraviolet (UV) radiation bother the little plants. UV light also gives sunburn to humans.

When plankton are bothered, or stressed by UV light, their chemistry takes over. The plankton try to protect themselves by producing a chemical compound called DMSP, which some scientists believe helps strengthen the plankton's cell walls. This chemical gets broken down in the water by bacteria, and changes into another substance called DMS.

DMS then filters from the ocean into the air, where it breaks down again to form tiny dust-like particles. These tiny particles are just the right size for water to condense on, which is the beginning of how clouds are formed. So, indirectly, plankton help create more clouds, and more clouds mean that less direct light reaches the ocean surface.





Når det gjelder Svensmark og hans kosmiske aerosoler fra motsatt retning, ovenifra, så varierer denne utfra tre kjente faktorer, hvorav de to første jeg nevner vel er de store variasjonspåvirkerne. Solmagnetisme, jordmagnetisme, og atmosfæren vår. Leste et sted at vi mennesker fikk et par fotoner tvers gjennom skallen pr. sekund. På Mars, som ikke har geomagnetisme å snakke om, og en særdeles tynn atmosfære, er strålingen mye høyere, og husker jeg ikke helt feil, blir fotonbombardementet mennesker vil utsettes for der regnet som en potensiell fare under fremtidige Mars-ferder.

Kanskje noen burde sette opp Svensmarks kosmiske stråling opp mot geomagnetisme og solaktivitetens forskjellige variasjoner og funksjoner? Er vel mest vukcevic som har holdt på med dette, til tross for at han gang etter gang blir karakterdrept av Svalgaard.

Sola ser ut til å ha stor innflytelse på klimaet på jorda, men på andre måter enn direkte variasjon i W/m2, selv om det også har litt å si.

PS: Ikke glem å sende en takk til planteplanktonet. Det produserer mesteparten av oksygenet vi har i atmosfæren. Det var utrolig nok noen "forskere" som slapp gjennom fagfelle"nåløyet" til Nature, der de påsto at nesten alt planteplanktonet var forsvunnet iløpet av de siste 100 årene. Dette fikk mitt alter ego til å smelle til på Forskning.no, og under over alle undre, redaksjonen gikk til slutt ut med en kommentar. De interesserte kan lese om saken i dette innlegget. Stoffet er interessant, for det viser til fulle hvor elendig kvalitet det er på mye av den såkalte forskningen som blir publisert i de største vitenskapelige magasinene.
Ja heldigvis flere der ser galskapen; men stadig alt for få.
Dertil kommer desværre de der ikke vil se, hva de ser.

Spiren

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Sv: Henrik Svensmark
« Svar #61 på: september 04, 2013, 22:53:46 pm »
Danish experiment suggests unexpected magic by cosmic rays in cloud formation

Researchers in the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) are hard on the trail of a previously unknown molecular process that helps commonplace clouds to form. Tests in a large and highly instrumented reaction chamber in Lyngby, called SKY2, demonstrate that an existing chemical theory is misleading.

http://www.dtu.dk/english/News/Nyhed?id={ABB2F1B4-F5F7-4452-BB39-9818EA7CB8F9}
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Sv: Henrik Svensmark
« Svar #62 på: september 04, 2013, 23:28:58 pm »
Danish experiment suggests unexpected magic by cosmic rays in cloud formation

Researchers in the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) are hard on the trail of a previously unknown molecular process that helps commonplace clouds to form. Tests in a large and highly instrumented reaction chamber in Lyngby, called SKY2, demonstrate that an existing chemical theory is misleading.

http://www.dtu.dk/english/News/Nyhed?id={ABB2F1B4-F5F7-4452-BB39-9818EA7CB8F9}

Spiren, dette kan være viktig, og bør være en meget stor vitamininnsprøyting for Svensmarks tilhengere. Det er slått opp over dammen også.

WUWT - Svensmark’s cosmic ray theory of clouds and global warming looks to be confirmed

Sitat
Note: Between flaccid climate sensitivity, ENSO driving “the pause”, and now this, it looks like the upcoming IPCC AR5 report will be obsolete the day it is released.

From a Technical University of Denmark press release comes what looks to be a significant confirmation of Svensmark’s theory of temperature modulation on Earth by cosmic ray interactions. The process is that when there are more cosmic rays, they help create more microscopic cloud nuclei, which in turn form more clouds, which reflect more solar radiation back into space, making Earth cooler than what it normally might be. Conversely, less cosmic rays mean less cloud cover and a warmer planet as indicated here.  The sun’s magnetic field is said to deflect cosmic rays when its solar magnetic dynamo is more active, and right around the last solar max, we were at an 8000 year high, suggesting more deflected cosmic rays, and warmer temperatures. Now the sun has gone into a record slump, and there are predictions of cooler temperatures ahead This new and important paper is published in Physics Letters A. – Anthony


Danish experiment suggests unexpected magic by cosmic rays in cloud formation

Researchers in the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) are hard on the trail of a previously unknown molecular process that helps commonplace clouds to form. Tests in a large and highly instrumented reaction chamber in Lyngby, called SKY2, demonstrate that an existing chemical theory is misleading.

Back in 1996 Danish physicists suggested that cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, are important in the formation of clouds. Since then, experiments in Copenhagen and elsewhere have demonstrated that cosmic rays actually help small clusters of molecules to form. But the cosmic-ray/cloud hypothesis seemed to run into a problem when numerical simulations of the prevailing chemical theory pointed to a failure of growth.

Fortunately the chemical theory could also be tested experimentally, as was done with SKY2, the chamber of which holds 8 cubic metres of air and traces of other gases. One series of experiments confirmed the unfavourable prediction that the new clusters would fail to grow sufficiently to be influential for clouds. But another series of experiments, using ionizing rays, gave a very different result, as can be seen in the accompanying figure.

The reactions going on in the air over our heads mostly involve commonplace molecules. During daylight hours, ultraviolet rays from the Sun encourage sulphur dioxide to react with ozone and water vapour to make sulphuric acid. The clusters of interest for cloud formation consist mainly of sulphuric acid and water molecules clumped together in very large numbers and they grow with the aid of other molecules.

...

Les resten ved å klikke på linken over. Jeg har knapt rukket sette meg inn i dette, og vil derfor sette pris på om noen kan komme med noen hel- eller halvgode kommentarer. :)
Ja heldigvis flere der ser galskapen; men stadig alt for få.
Dertil kommer desværre de der ikke vil se, hva de ser.

Spiren

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Sv: Henrik Svensmark
« Svar #63 på: september 04, 2013, 23:40:28 pm »
Jeg har hele tiden holdt en knapp på Svendsmars teori som den som har mest å si for klimaet!

I følge det jeg kan se - er det her Occam's Razor slår til!  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam's_razor
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Sv: Henrik Svensmark
« Svar #64 på: september 12, 2013, 14:38:17 pm »
Physicists claim further evidence of link between cosmic rays and cloud formation.

http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/54622

Artikel i det videnskabelige tidsskrift Physics Letters A præsenterer Henrik Svensmark, Martin Enghoff og Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen fra DTU Space målinger.

https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/51188502/PLA22068.pdf
Det er ikke noe farligere i verden enn opprigtig uvitenhet og pliktoppfyllende dumhet.
Martin Luther King.